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 The Online Scots Dictionary — Phonetic Symbols

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The Online Scots Dictionary — Phonetic Symbols

Consonants usually have the same phonetic values (pronunciation) in Scots, as in Standard English.

IPA Symbol
Sounds like:
IPA Symbol
Sounds like:
 
 
 
 
/b/
bat
/s/
sip
/d/
dog
/ʃ/
ship
/ʤ/
jam
/t/
tip
/f/
fat
/ʧ/
chin
/g/
good
/θ/
thin
/h/
hat
/ð/
the
/j/
yet
/v/
van
/k/
kit
/w/
witch
/l/
lot
/ʍ/
which
/m/
mat
/x, ç/*
loch
/n/
not
/z/
zip
/ŋ/
sing
/ʒ/
vision
/p/
pet
 
 

/r/ rat, is usually trilled (rolled) in Scots.

* Most dialects of Scots have a German like Ich/Ach rule governing the pronunciation of <ch>. Pronounced /ç/ (Ger. Ich) initially or following a front vowel, and /x/ (Ger. Bach) following a back vowel.

Glottal Stops

Many speakers substitute a glottal stop /ʔ/ for /t/ and sometimes /k/ and /p/, between two vowels or final /t/.

Vowels

Note the The Scots Vowel Length Rule:

The following vowels are usually short:

IPA Symbol
Sounds like:
 
/ə/*
Eng. above, Ger. Nase
/ɪ/
Eng. pity, Ger. mit
/ʌ/
Eng. but
/ɛ/
Eng. pen, Ger. Fest, Fr. faite
/a/
Eng. cat, Ger. hat, Fr. patte
/æ/
Southern Eng. fat

The following vowels are usually long:
In stressed syllables before /v/, /ð/, /z/, /ʒ/ and /r/.
Before another vowel and
Before a morpheme** boundary.

/e/
Eng. aim, Ger. See, Fr. été
/i/
Eng. feet, Ger. Biene, Fr. ici
/o/
Eng. rode, Ger. Sohn, Fr. sot
/oː/
Eng. toad, Ger. Boot
/u/
Eng. food, Ger. buhle, Fr. roue
/ø/
Ger. schön, Fr. peu
/y/
Ger. über, Fr. mur

The following vowels are usually long in most dialects:

/ɑ/
Eng. father, Ger. Name, Fr. pâte
/ɔ/
Eng. cost, Ger. Sonne, Fr. tort

*In unstressed positions.
**A morpheme is the smallest meaningful part into which a word can be divided, i.e. inflections, prefixes and suffixes etc.

Dipthongs

/aɪ/
Eng. buy, Ger. weit
/əi/
Eng. bite
/ʌu/
Eng. cow, Ger. Haus
/oe, oi/
Eng. boy, Ger. Heu
/ju/
Eng. you, Ger. Jugend

/aɪ/ usually occurs in long environments.
/əi/ usually occurs in short environments.

See the Spelling Guide spelling guide for further detail.

Other Symbols

ː Shows that the previous vowel is long.
ˈ Shows that the following syllable is stressed.