Relative pronouns introduce information
referring to the previous part of the sentence (clause).
In the sentence:
The kemp that wun the gowd medal wis awfu prood.
The champion who won the gold medal
was extremely proud.
The clause 'that wun the gowd medal' provides information
relative to the 'kemp'.
These relative clauses are
introduced by relative pronouns.
The relative pronoun for male and
female, and each case is that (who, which,
that) often contracted to 'at, which is not
to be confused with the preposition at.
The relative pronouns wha (who) and wham
(whom) are Anglicisms found in more formal writing
Thay are aw gluttons that little guid
All who get little
good are gluttons.
The chield that steys neist door.
The fellow who lives next door.
The fowk that's comin tae veesit.
The people who are coming to
Gie't back tae thaim that's aucht it.
Give it back to those
who own it.
That may be made possessive by adding 's
The rinners that's feet is sair.
The runners whose feet hurt.
The man that's dug dee'd.
man whose dog died.
The laddies that's baw's tint.
boys whose ball is lost.
The wifie that's washin wis duin.
The woman whose washing was
Shadow pronouns appear in constructions such as that plus a possessive
The lad that his dug's deid.
boy whose dog is dead.
The wifie that her messages is tint.
The woman whose shopping is
The man that his darg's duin.
man whose work is done.
Sometimes the relative pronoun is omitted. Prepositions
are frequently omitted at the end of a sentence.
Thare's no mony fowk (that) steys in
There are not
many people who live in that valley.
Ma freend's a dochter (that) uised tae
be in the schuil.
has a daughter who used to be at school.
We haed this Soothren lass (that) cam
tae wir schuil.
this English girl who came to our school.
The machine (that) ye milk the kye (wi).
The machine with which you
milk the cows.
Thare's juist the ane o us (that's) been
tae Cupar afore.
only one of us who has been to Cupar before.
The shap (that) A bocht it (frae).
The shop from which I bought
Whilk is now obsolete in speech but still occurs
in literature. Consequently the sense of 'which' may
be conveyed by the use of that or the use of
the conjunction an. often as an that or
but that, with, if necessary, a corresponding
recasting of the sentence.
The pat wi whilk the maid byles watter.
The pat that the maid byles watter wi.
The pot in which the maid boils
The wirkers howkit a sheuch in whilk
the foonds wis liggit.
The wirkers howkit a sheuch, that the foonds
wis liggit in.
workers dug a trench in which the foundations
He said that he haed tint it, whilk wisna
whit he wantit tae hear.
He said that he haed tint it, an that wisna
whit he wantit tae hear.
He said he had lost it, which
was not what he wanted to hear.
The moniment that is ower thare is twa
hunder year auld.
The monument which is over
there is two hundred years old.
Allowa, that many fowk haes written aboot,
is Burns’ cauf-kintra.
Alloway, about which many people have written,
is Burns’ birthplace.
He said they war gaun oot, but that wis
no whit she wantit tae dae.
He said they were going out, which was not what
she wanted to do.
He wis cairyin his belangins, an mony
o thaim wis braken.
was carrying his belongings, many of which were