Conjunctions are words that connect sentences, clauses and words.
Many common adverbs and prepositions are also used
from the time that
Uses of afore.
A'll be hame afore ye.I'll
be home before you.
He wis thare afore A cam up.He
was there before I came up.
A'd bide in a hoose by masel afore
A'd bide wi a man o that kin.
I'd stay in a house on my own rather than live
with a man like that.
Frae is a literary form - fae
being common in speech, except in South West Central
Scots and Southern Scots where it is pronounced thrae.
Frae it waukens the bairn is greetin.
The child is crying from the
time that it wkaes up.
He's duin nocht but eat frae he gaed
in.He's done nothing but
eat since he went in.
Uses of hou.
Allou me speir at ye hou ye did that.
Allow me to ask you how you
A aye wunnert hou he gaed til Norawa.
I always wondered why he went
Uses of tae and til.
Tae is generally used in the sense of 'until'.
Til is generally used in the sense of 'before',
'when' or 'in order that'.
A'll no gae hame tae A see the doctor
comin oot.I'll not go
home until I see the doctor coming out.
A wisna lang hame til he cam tae see
me. I wasn't long home
when he came to see me.
Gie's a lunt til A licht the gas.
Give me a matchso that I can
light the gas.
Other conjunctions are:
in comparrison with, besides,
but, except, without
*Again also takes the form
agin, which may be contracted 'gin.
**Acause may be contracted to 'cause.
***Gif is now obsolete and is usually a literary
form.****Or, used to introduce an alternative, should not be confused with or [ər] meaning before or until.
Ye are auld by me.You're
older than me.
He haes mair nor A thocht.
He has more than I thought.
Ye'll see't or lang.You'll
see it before long.
I didna gang acause A wisna
bidden.I didn't go because
I wasn't invited.
Bide here or A retour.Wait
here until I return.
Wheesht or ense A'll belt
ye.Be quiet or else I'll
Och, gin thay war awa.Oh,
if only they were gone.
Set tae the gate, an ance
we’re thare we’ll tak a dram.
Get on the way, and once we
arrive we’ll have a tipple.
An, but but ye read it richt,
ye winna lift it.And,
unless you read it correctly, you won’t
Dinna fash yersel. Gif Jimmie
says it's weel, it's weel.Don't
worry yourself. If Jimmy says it's well, it's
Awbody but ma freends cam.
Everyone except my friends
Ye'll be droukit or ye
win hame.You'll be soaked
before you get home.
Shoud A tak this ane or
that ane?Should I take
this one or that one?
Whit will A dae gin ma
caur winna stairt?What
shall I do if my car won't start?
Ye'll no get ben binna ye
weir yer kirk-claes.You'll
not get in unless you wear your Sunday best.
He wis auld sin A mynd.
He's been an old man for as
long as I can remember.
Siller's rife nou by't wis
in oor day.Money is plentiful
now compared with whow it was in our day.
Thare wis mair as seiven
hunder fowk come til the gaitherin.More
than seven hundred people had come to the gathering.
Note the use of an (and) + a verb in infinitive
Infinitive - in the mood that expresses,
the verbal idea without reference to person, number
Ettle an mend the gairden yett by the
morn.Try to repair the
garden gate by tomorrow.
Mynd an bring her back afore twal.
Remember to bring her back
She canna mynd an dae whit she's telt.
She can't remember to do what
An (and) is used to introduce verbless subordinate
clauses (cannot function as sentences in their own right,
but perform an adjectival, adverbial or nominal function)
that express logical contradiction, surprise or indignation.
He haed tae heeze aw thae pallets, an
him wi his sair airm.
He had to hoist all those pallets
although he had a sore arm.
She haed tae daunder fower mile, an her
aicht month biggen.
She had to wander for four
miles although she was eight months pregnant.