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Conjunctions

Conjunctions are words that connect sentences, clauses and words.

Many common adverbs and prepositions are also used as conjunctions.

afore
before
tae/til
to
efter
after
whan
when
f(r)ae
from the time that
whaur
where
hou
how, why
why
why

Uses of afore.

A'll be hame afore ye.
I'll be home before you.
He wis thare afore A cam up.
He was there before I came up.
A'd bide in a hoose by masel afore A'd bide wi a man o that kin.
I'd stay in a house on my own rather than live with a man like that.

Frae is a literary form - fae being common in speech, except in South West Central Scots and Southern Scots where it is pronounced thrae.

Frae it waukens the bairn is greetin.
The child is crying from the time that it wkaes up.
He's duin nocht but eat frae he gaed in.
He's done nothing but eat since he went in.

Uses of hou.

Allou me speir at ye hou ye did that.
Allow me to ask you how you did that.
A aye wunnert hou he gaed til Norawa.
I always wondered why he went to Norway.

Uses of tae and til.
Tae is generally used in the sense of 'until'.
Til is generally used in the sense of 'before', 'when' or 'in order that'.

A'll no gae hame tae A see the doctor comin oot.
I'll not go home until I see the doctor coming out.
A wisna lang hame til he cam tae see me.
I wasn't long home when he came to see me.
Gie's a lunt til A licht the gas.
Give me a matchso that I can light the gas.

Other conjunctions are:

again*
before
gin
if, whether
aither
either
naither
neither
acause**
because
nor
than
an
and
or****
or
as
as/than/that
or
before, until
baith
both
sin
since
by
in comparrison with, besides, before
syne
since
binna
unless, except
that
that
but
but, except, without
tho
(al)though
for
for
while
while
gif***
if, whether
withoot
unless

*Again also takes the form agin, which may be contracted 'gin.
**Acause may be contracted to 'cause.
***Gif is now obsolete and is usually a literary form.
****Or, used to introduce an alternative, should not be confused with or [ər] meaning before or until.

Ye are auld by me.
You're older than me.
He haes mair nor A thocht.
He has more than I thought.
Ye'll see't or lang.
You'll see it before long.
I didna gang acause A wisna bidden.
I didn't go because I wasn't invited.
Bide here or A retour.
Wait here until I return.
Wheesht or ense A'll belt ye.
Be quiet or else I'll hit you.
Och, gin thay war awa.
Oh, if only they were gone.
 
Set tae the gate, an ance we’re thare we’ll tak a dram.
Get on the way, and once we arrive we’ll have a tipple.
An, but but ye read it richt, ye winna lift it.
And, unless you read it correctly, you won’t understand it.
Dinna fash yersel. Gif Jimmie says it's weel, it's weel.
Don't worry yourself. If Jimmy says it's well, it's well.
Awbody but ma freends cam.
Everyone except my friends came.
Ye'll be droukit or ye win hame.
You'll be soaked before you get home.
Shoud A tak this ane or that ane?
Should I take this one or that one?
Whit will A dae gin ma caur winna stairt?
What shall I do if my car won't start?
Ye'll no get ben binna ye weir yer kirk-claes.
You'll not get in unless you wear your Sunday best.
He wis auld sin A mynd.
He's been an old man for as long as I can remember.
Siller's rife nou by't wis in oor day.
Money is plentiful now compared with whow it was in our day.
Thare wis mair as seiven hunder fowk come til the gaitherin.
More than seven hundred people had come to the gathering.

Note the use of an (and) + a verb in infinitive phrases.

Infinitive - in the mood that expresses, the verbal idea without reference to person, number or time.

Ettle an mend the gairden yett by the morn.
Try to repair the garden gate by tomorrow.
Mynd an bring her back afore twal.
Remember to bring her back before twelve.
She canna mynd an dae whit she's telt.
She can't remember to do what she's told.

An (and) is used to introduce verbless subordinate clauses (cannot function as sentences in their own right, but perform an adjectival, adverbial or nominal function) that express logical contradiction, surprise or indignation.

He haed tae heeze aw thae pallets, an him wi his sair airm.
He had to hoist all those pallets although he had a sore arm.
She haed tae daunder fower mile, an her aicht month biggen.
She had to wander for four miles although she was eight months pregnant.

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